How To Choose CD/DVD Archival Media

(Last updated January 11th 2013)

Translations: Serbo-Croatian by Jovana Milutinovich

Ahh, I’ve been planning to write this one for awhile: an entire article on archival quality media. As I do professional software development as well as professional photography (what a weird combination), I need archival quality CD and DVD media to store my data on.

However, one of the hardest things to is actually find good media, or even understand why it is good media. This article focuses on the history of Compact Discs, writable CD/DVD media, and why DVD+R is superior to DVD-R. If you want to just know what media is worth buying, skip to the summary at the bottom.

Short history of the Compact Disc
The invention of the Compact Disc has had a large impact on both music and computing in the last 20 years. Invented in 1979 as a joint project between Sony and Philips to counter the self-destructive nature of consumer audio playback (such as tapes and records that could only be played so many times before the recording degraded significantly) by switching to a resilient digital format.

The CD was also designed to store standard computer data, as in 1985 the first CD drives for computers were released; massive, bulky, and expensive, it was not until the mid-90s that they really took off, driven almost solely by video games and large multimedia applications.

In 1990, Sony and Philips went back to the drawing table, and then came out with the CD-R, a record-once medium. Yet again, the first CD burners were large, expensive, and bulky, but by the late 90s having a CD burner was the new ‘in’.

The first few generations of CD media, designed by Taiyo Yuden (a company who I respect, and buy all my archival quality media from), actually kind of sucked; it wasn’t until around 2000 that companies started producing very high end media.

CDs and DVDs store individual bits (encoded in various ways depending on the media) with spots of reflective and non-reflective areas. This method is called ‘pits and lands’, where pits ‘absorb’ light (ie, are ‘off’ bits) and lands ‘reflect’ light (ie, are ‘on’ bits).

With pressed media, the pressing method causes pits to reflect the laser’s light away from the sensor, and the lands to reflect it back at the sensor. With burned media, a high energy laser causes spots of organic dye to go opaque and obscure the reflective surface for the pits, leaving the organic dye for lands alone.

Short history of the DVD
While burning was becoming popular in the late 90s, so was playing high quality video on DVDs. Storing almost 7 times the data of a 700MB CD (or almost 13 in the case of dual layer DVDs), allowed companies to store massive amounts of data on one disc, leading to the movie industry to drop VHS tapes and the video game industry to drop CDs.

In 1995, the first DVD specification was ratified by over a dozen companies including Sony and Philips, as well as Thompson, Pioneer, and Mitsubishi. By 2000, at least half the homes in the US and Japan had DVD players.

So, obviously, the next step was to produce burnable DVDs. Two separate, and incompatible, efforts took hold. The first one, Pioneer’s DVD-R (pronounced ‘DVD dash R’) was released in 1997, using different data storage methods than pressed DVDs (appearing to be more like CD-R than DVD), a poor error correction scheme, and the ‘wobble’ laser tracking system of DVD-R is inadequate for the job.

The second effort, lead by the DVD+RW Alliance (headed by Sony, Philips, Mitsubishi, and Thompson) was released in 2002, as an alternative to the poorly implemented DVD-R. DVD+R uses a superior ‘wobble’ laser tracking system, a far better error correction method, and the media quality itself is typically higher. (See the ‘Why DVD+R?’ section below for a more technical explanation)

Why archival media is hard to produce
Unlike pressed CDs/DVDs, ‘burnt’ CDs/DVDs can eventually ‘fade’, due to five things that effect the quality of CD media: Sealing method, reflective layer, organic dye makeup, where it was manufactured, and your storage practices (please keep all media out of direct sunlight, in a nice cool dry dark place, in acid-free plastic containers; this will triple the lifetime of any media).

The silver and aluminum alloys used in virtually all blank CD/DVD media has one major issue, requiring the manufacturer to lacquer a protective seal over the entire disc: silver and aluminum oxidize when they hit air, turning the normally reflective layer into silver or aluminum rust. Some (very expensive) media uses gold instead which doesn’t oxidize, however DVD media cannot use gold due to design issues (not true anymore, see update 1 below). Today, only the cheapest of the cheap media has severe issues with sealing practices (as such, avoid any media made outside of Japan and Taiwan; especially avoid media made in India).

Assuming that the protective seal and reflective layer are manufactured correctly, the next issue is the organic dye. The first organic dyes, designed by Taiyo Yuden, were Cyanine-based and, under normal conditions, had a shelf life of around ten years; simply, that was simply unacceptable for archive discs. Taiyo Yuden, Mitsubishi Chemicals, Mitsui Co., and Ciba Specialty Chemicals spent the next ten years trying to produce the best organic dyes, eventually reaching archive-quality CD media.

Taiyo Yuden produced ‘Super Cyanine’, a chemically stabilized version of the original Cyanine dye designs, while TDK offers media that uses ‘metal-stabilized Cyanine’ dye, leading to similar shelf lives as Taiyo Yuden’s media. Taiyo Yuden states their Super Cyanine dye is chemically stable for at least 70 years, and TDK states their metal-stabilized Cyanine is also stable for 70 years.

On the other hand, Mitsubishi went in a different direction and produced what is called a Metal Azo dye, that they claim is stable for around 100 years. Azo dyes are chemically stable, however, the shelf life of media using Azo dyes typically does not exceed that of Super Cyanine and metal-stabilized Cyanine.

The third dye produced for CD media is called Phthalocyanine dye, with the majority of such dyes produced by Mitsui and Ciba. Typically marketed as more resistant to heat and UV radiation than Cyanine and Azo, modern Cyanine and Azo dyes last just as long in extreme conditions.

DVDs also use similar dyes, however manufacturers have intentionally kept what dyes they use a secret (instead of a feature in their marketing of the media), and all blank DVDs are intentionally the same color (as different dyes on CDs make blanks different colors, however, it is not indicative of what dye is used due to some manufacturers using different colored silver alloys and non-reactive additives in the dye).

Why Taiyo Yuden media, and how to buy in the US
The best discs in circulation tend to be Taiyo Yuden media. In Japan, you find their media under the brand That’s, which are wholly owned by Taiyo Yuden.

As of late 2009, Taiyo Yuden announced they were buying the JVC Advanced Media brand, and making it a wholly owned and operated brand for TY products. They did this to put Taiyo Yuden products on store shelves worldwide. See update 4 at the bottom for a full explanation.

Simply put, I have never had problems with any kind of Taiyo Yuden media. Ever. I have bought CDs and DVDs under a dozen different brands (including non-Taiyo Yuden manufactured TDK and Verbatim), and the only ones that have had a 100% success rate is Taiyo Yuden.

If you cannot find any company selling media under the Taiyo Yuden/JVC Advanced Media brand, I suggest buying from the, who offer a wide range of Taiyo Yuden CD media, DVD-R media, and DVD+R media. I tend to buy just from them, as they are the only company that guarantees that their media is actually from Taiyo Yuden and not a fake (see the above linked FAQ on information about fake Taiyo Yuden media).

Why DVD+R?
This is the most technical section of the article. If you don’t understand the basics of how CD/DVD media works, or find such technical discussions boring, skip to the next section.

As I said earlier, DVD-R sucks for data preservation for three reasons: inferior error correction, inferior ‘wobble’ tracking, and the fact its data writing methods look like an un-needed halfway point between CD-R and DVD+R. The wobble tracking I shall explain first, then the error corrections method, then the specifics of ATIP/pre-pit/ADIP optimum power settings.

For a CD/DVD burner to track where it is on the disc, it uses three things: the ‘wobble’ of the data track (where it actually wobbles back and forth instead of in a straight line) to tell where it is in the track, the position of the track to tell where it is on the disc, and some additional information on the disc to tell where the track (singular, as CDs and DVDs only have one track, and it is written in a concentric spiral) begins and ends.

This additional information on a CD-R is called the ATIP (Absolute Time In Pregroove), which contains how long the track is, where it begins, what the maximum and minimum writing speeds are, what formula dye it uses, who actually made it, optimum power control settings, and error correction data. The ATIP is stored as a frequency modulation in the wobble itself.

However, since the wobble changes subtly to encode data, it is impossible to use with the small size of tracks DVD requires, as electric noise in the laser pickup and wobbles introduced by the electric motor spinning the disc, these could easily be read as frequency changes in the real track itself.

On DVD-R, they tried to solve the problem with something called ‘pre-pits’ where spikes in the amplitude of the wobble appear due to pits fully out of phase with the rest of the track (ie, between two spirals of the track, where there is no data). This can be viewed as a simple improvement over CD-R as it makes it easier to track the wobble (since the wobble is constant except for the easy to detect and remove spikes).

Unfortunately, this method as one flaw: due to electric noise in the laser pickup, it would be very easy to miss the pre-pit (or read one that wasn’t actually there) if the disc were damaged or spun at fast speeds. The time to read a pre-pit is 1T (roughly .0000000038th of a second), which even for a computer can be easy to miss. DVD-R traded hard to track frequency changes for hard to read wobble-encoded data.

On a DVD+R, however, they came up with a much better method. Instead of changing the frequency of the wobble, or causing amplitude spikes in the wobble, they use complete phase changes. Where CD-R’s and DVD-R’s methods make you choose between either easy wobble tracking or easy ATIP reading, DVD+R’s method makes it very easy to track the wobble, and also very easy to encode data into the wobble. DVD+R’s method is called ADIP (ADdress In Pre-groove), which uses a phase change method.

With ADIPs’ phase changes, the direction of the wobble changes and continues on going in the exact opposite direction (ie, counter-clockwise to clockwise, or the reverse). For example, if the wobble was ‘going up’, the phase change causes it to instantly reverse direction start ‘going down’ no matter where it in the wobble cycle. The phase change is very easy to detect, and also continues for a set period (in this case, one 32T section of the track, or 32 times longer than the pre-pit method of DVD-R).

The state of the phase change (clockwise or counter-clockwise) encodes the individual bits in each block In essence, with the phase change method, not only do you have an easy way of tracking the wobble, but you now have an easy way of reading wobble-encoded data.

As I mentioned earlier, this wobble-encoded data includes error correction of wobble-encoded data itself. Error correction is the most important part of media, because if it does not work, then you’ve lost your data, even if there is nothing seriously wrong with the disc.

The DVD-R specification states that for every 192 bits, 64 of them are not protected under any scheme, 24 of them are protected by 24 bits of parity, and the last 56 bits are protected by another 24 bits of parity. This weird (to put it mildly) scheme allows you to easily scramble or lose 25% of the data that is required to read your disk! This information is almost more important than the actual data burned on the disc itself.

The DVD+R specification, however, states that for every 204 bits of information, it is split into four blocks of 52 bits containing 1 sync bit to prevent misreading because of phase changes, 31 bits of data, and a 20 bit parity (that protects all 32 bits of data). The sync bit is always the same value in all four blocks, and exists only to prevent phase inversions.

Now, the third item on the list: how DVD+R discs burn better. As I said earlier, ATIP/pre-pit/ADIP stores information about optimum power control settings. This information is basically formulas stating how much output power is needed, what the laser startup power should be, and other pieces of information you require to properly burn a DVD.

Optimum power control output is dependent on three things: burning speed, laser wavelength, and information given to the drive about the media. DVD-R basically fails on all three accounts because DVD+R simply includes far more information about the media in the ADIP data than DVD-R does in it’s pre-pit data.

DVD+R includes four optimum profiles, one for four major burning speeds (usually 2x, 4x, 6x, and 8x, though this can change as speeds increase). Each of these profiles include optimum power output based on laser wavelength, more precise laser power settings, and other additional information. With this information, any DVD+R burner can far more optimize it’s burning strategy to fit the media than it can with DVD-R, consistently providing better burns.

For comparison, DVD-R includes one profile, optimum power output based for that one profile only and uncalibrated towards what wavelength it is for, less precise laser power settings, and no other additional information. Typically, DVD-R burners have to already know how to burn a certain piece of media (and include this information in their firmwares) before they can properly burn to it. New media often is not properly supported.

In addition to the optimum power control profiles, DVD+R also gives four times more scratch space for the drive to calibrate the laser on; more space can only improve the calibration quality. So, in short, DVD+R media exists to simply produce better burns and protect your data better.

And finally, the end of the article…
Finally, after roughly three pages of technical discussion, we arrive at the end of my dissertation on archival quality CD/DVD media. So, you’re probably now wondering, in simple terms, what media do I recommend?

To begin with, I do not recommend CD-RW, DVD-RW, or DVD+RW media in any form for permanent storage. This is mostly a no-brainer, but those discs are meant to be able to be changed after burning, and they are simply unsuitable for long-term archival storage. I also do not recommend DVD-R media due to DVD+R’s superior error correction and burning control.

That said, I recommend Taiyo Yuden media across the board. Taiyo Yuden currently manufactures 52x CD-R, 16x DVD-R, and 16x DVD+R media in normal shiney silver, inkjet printable, and thermal printable forms. Taiyo Yuden may be one of the most expensive (if not the most expensive), but their media quality is unsurpassed. Also, as I mentioned earlier, I recommended buying from as they are the only online US distributor that guarantees that their Taiyo Yuden media is certified as coming from Taiyo Yuden.

So, what am I using? Due to Taiyo Yuden’s superior media quality, and DVD+R’s superior design, I use only Taiyo Yuden DVD+R media. I recommend this media to everyone who wishes to keep their data for a long, long time.

Update 1: It seems MAM-A and Kodak actually has managed to make a gold DVD, though no one else seems to be manufacturing them (Taiyo Yuden/JVC Advanced Media now makes an archival gold disc, see update 6). However, MAM-A’s gold archival media still doesn’t seem to exceed TY quality (although Mr 60,000 in the comments below puts TY second best to MAM-A). Due to the extreme cost of gold archival media ($2+ a disc) with very little increased protection (if any), I’ll still say TY media is better. I want to see more independent tests on this before I change my recommendation.

In addition, I’d like to mention that Verbatim has been relabeling other brands of disc as their own. If the box/spindle/cakebox the discs come in don’t say they’re manufactured with Verbatim’s proprietary Azo dye (sometimes called Advanced Azo, sometimes not, depending on the product) then they aren’t Verbatim media at all and should be avoided as they may not meet typical home archival standards.

Update 2: (Sept. 19th 2007) Its almost been a year since I first wrote this article. My recommendations for media have not changed, my recommendations for DVD burners have.

Samsung: Samsung is currently producing two drives worth owning, the
Samsung SH-S222AB
(SATA). They’re not considered archival grade, but they’re not bad.

TEAC: TEAC makes an archival drive that is ISO/IEC10995 compliant, and is very expensive. Comes in two forms, external USB DV-W5000U and internal SATA DV-W5000S. I’ve seen DV-W5000U drives for sale for $500, and refurbished DV-W5000S drives for $150-200. This is the elite of drives, and recommended if you’re very serious about 30+ year archival storage.

Update 3: (July 26th 2009) Its been awhile since I updated this article. Pioneer is no longer manufacturing drives worth using. Just buy a Samsung or TEAC drive like I link to above. I’m using two Samsung drives now after my PX-716 finally died after years of service.

My recommendation on TY and Verbatim hasn’t changed, and I imagine it will never change; DVD media will not change significantly from here on out. Bluray in my opinion is not worth switching over to unless you’re storing data that can be measured in hundreds of gigabytes, and at that point you might want to look into archival tape storage.

When Bluray is worth switching over to, I’ll write a follow up article to this one. High quality single layer media will have to drop below 50 cents a piece and Bluray burners will have to become ubiquitous (much like DVD burners are now) before that happens. I’m thinking 2011 or later.

Update 4: (August 3rd 2010) Taiyo Yuden has bought the JVC Media brand and is now operating under the JVC Advanced Media brand. You can now buy TY inside JVC boxes and get your usual TY quality. This site has the conversion of part numbers.

JVC has not bought Taiyo Yuden, and Taiyo Yuden is in full control of this new venture. They merely bought they name so they can put TY products on store shelves worldwide. is selling almost all JVC Advanced Media branded TY products in place of the old TY branded ones.

Update 5: (September 27th 2011) A few people have asked about how PIE/PIF scans work.

DVD-R and DVD+R both employ two stage error correction.

PIE (Parity Inner Error) just means error correction was used, PIF (Parity Inner Failure) means the error was unrecoverable using the inner ECC block but still may be recovered using the outer ECC block . On tools that give avg/max/total, max PIE values above 140, or max PIF values above 4* means the disc needs to be replaced but the data most likely isn’t corrupted yet**.

For a burn to be considered still pristine you want max PIE below 20 and max PIF 3 or lower.

Discs will NOT be pristine after 5 years, but there is a fall off of PIF/PIE increasing after 6 months and doesn’t seem to start picking up again until 5-10 years depending on storage environment.

Totals for PIF can be as high as 100k yet have a max of 20, and total PIF can be as high as 1000 but have a max below 3. Max PIE is considered mostly fatal above 280 and can reach as high as 1664, and max PIF can reach as high as 208*.

DVD+R generally will maintain lower values for both due to superior error correction techniques.

* Some tools and/or drives won’t list above 4 for PIF.

** Some tools and/or drives also list PO (Parity Outer) uncorrectable errors. This is for any read that has a max PIF above 4. This indicates a mostly unrecoverable data corruption error, which would effect (if I’ve done my math right) 36k of data (although that doesn’t mean the whole 36k of data is corrupted, just that its corrupted inside of that 36k). This still does not indicate the disc is unreadable, some obsessive ripping tools will try multiple reads in an effort to get a valid read or different incorrect reads that can be merged into a valid read.

Update 6: (January 11th 2013) Taiyo Yuden announced last year that they are now producing an ISO/IEC10995 compliant archival grade gold alloy DVD-R. Sadly, its not DVD+R and I’m hoping they’ll consider making a DVD+R version as well. Not many vendors carry this disc yet.

Also, a few people have asked when I’m going to write that Bluray follow up article. I don’t think Bluray is viable for long term archival storage yet. I continue my recommendation that if you need to store hundreds of gigabytes of data or more, consider archival tape.

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Published October 30th, 2006


1,249 Responses

Hi Patrick,

Thanks for the article. I’m a photographer and consequently longevity is my largest concern. Am I hearing correctly that you’d simply choose TY overall. Would you purchase over any of the “gold” products? Thanks!!

I don’t entirely trust the gold products. They cost 4 to 8 times more than a TY DVD+R and cannot prove they last longer. What makes DVDs last so long is the seal between the two polycarbonate discs. As long as this seal stays, the disc continues to work.

Gold prevents oxidation, however if the seal has been broken on the disc to let oxygen in, the disc has been ruined and the data is compromised anyhow.

So yes, I still put TY and Verbatim above all else. Ironically, Verbatim sells a Gold archive disc, but Verbatim doesn’t manufacture it so I’d avoid it.

Thanks Patrick! I really appreciate the time you put into this. I’m not so concerned about getting 10years out of a DVD. Rather, I’m more concerned with 100 years. I guess it would just make sense to back up my existing DVD’s every 5 or 10 years with new ones or with the latest technology at the time. BTW, nice flower pics. If you feel like it, bring a spray bottle with you and give them a squirt…really brings them to life and makes them pop.
Cheers and happy holidays!!

I’d probably wait 15 years before I start moving them to new media, but check them every 5.

Hi Patrick,
a very nice review of archival DVD! Much needed. It has given me lots of new konwledge!
To my question – what is your opinion of:
JVC (PLUS+R) VP-R47HMS25 16x Taiyo Yuden ARCHIVE GRADE Branded DVD+R which have Gold Lacquer surface!?

compared to:
Taiyo Yuden (PLUS+R) (52140) Professional Silver Top Unbranded 16x Speed 4.7GB DVD+R

best regards

See my reply to someone else asking about JVC. Apparently, either they’re not TY, or JVC doesn’t know how to properly handle discs (they repack them from commercial bulk from TY).

You say that
“Verbatim sells a Gold archive disc, but Verbatim doesn’t manufacture it so I’d avoid it.”

I have those discs and when I check them in DVD Identifier it says:
Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. MCC 02RG20
How can you say that Verbatim doesn’t manufacture them and who does in that case?
And were have you got that info from?

I emailed them, and they replied that they are not manufacturing them but using someone else (they didn’t say who, however).

But is this not just like ordinary Vebatim DVD’s?
They are also manufactured in different countries and in different plants but always with Verbatims dye.
Isn’t it the same? What is the difference?

I’d assume they don’t have the quality of Verbatim’s own media, otherwise this would be the only product Verbatim would sell.

Hi Patrick,

This was one truly excellent article. Thank you very much for the time you took to put it together!

I am wondering if you could verify/clarify the following conclusions that I’ve gathered by reading your article and searching for keywords in all the comment pages?

First off, what I need to do is (legally bound) archive approximately 10,000 files each year, presumably on one (or multiple copies of one) disc per year. I must store them at least 10 years from the day of writing the disc, so lets say 11 years to be on the safe side.

1) Both DVD+R and DVD-R from TY will guarantee a longevity that covers 11 years, right? Is there a specificed minimum longevity for these medias by TY?

2) If TY DVD+R isn’t available where I live (Sweden, I did find a place that sells TY but I only found DVD-Rs are their site), will DVD-R work just as well for my needs as long as I stick to TY?

3) I know this has been semi-answered already, but I’m a bit confused. If for some reason TY isn’t available, Verbatim would be your second choice for DVD-/+R. But, are all Verbatim DVD+/-R discs of archival quality, enough for my needs? Or just some of them?

4) The machine that would currently be used to write the data to these disks is a late 2008 Apple Xserve. The SuperDrive in it is specifically a “MATSHITADVD-R UJ-85J”. As far as I can tell by the comments, you seem to consider these to work OK for the task at hand; I haven’t seen any negative reports, but a few positives, for SuperDrives and/or Matshita in general. Do you still consider this drive trustworthy?

5) When trying out a drive, what should one do exactly? You’ve mentioned “get one and try it”, does that mean burn a bunch of data and if it verifies then it’s good to go?

6) When getting a package of empty DVD-/+Rs from TY (or possibly Verbatim), can they sit in the opened packaging for a few years and still be considered pristine? Or is there any degradation that should be considered “pre-use” or calculated into the longevity requirements?

7) Could you recap what you recommend for storing the individual discs once burned, and what marker to use for them to be sure that it doesn’t affect the disc?

Thanks again for an excellent article and possibly some further answers! :)

Kind Regards, Leo

If you need storage like that, burn multiples, and keep them in far apart regions (such as east and west coast in the US, or one in the US and one in Europe, etc). If one disc should get damaged or just go bad on it’s own, one or more copies would still be okay.

1) TY guarantees discs, stored properly and burned properly, for more than 10 years. If a TY disc goes bad that has been stored properly and burned properly before 10 years are up, I’d be very surprised.

2) Yes, DVD-R is fine. I like DVD+R only because it is a technically superior product; TY of either kind should work the same.

3) Verbatim makes their own media and also resells TY. I consider TY and Verbatim to be the only tier 1 manufacturers, with TY slightly edging out Verbatim.

4) It’ll work. Mashita/Panasonic drives tend to function correctly.

5) I’ve been buying Samsung drives lately. They seem to have the least problems of all the drives being manufactured.

6) I keep mine in the original spindles shut tight. I only open them when I need a disc. I’ve had a batch of TY DVDs for about 2 years, and they don’t seem to have been effected at all. They even have the “new disc” smell when I crack it open. (Side note: discs should have a slight smell, but should not stink badly. Cheap discs have almost putrid smells).

7) You know the black plastic jewel cases and DVD cases are made out of? Its a high grade polystyrene or polypropylene that doesn’t have a greasy feeling. This is what they sell commercially sold discs in, and its also what I recommend.

Have you ever looked at Millenniata disks? What’s your take?

Due to the length of time they claim their discs last (1000 years), I cannot trust there will be mechanical devices to read them 1000 years from now due to the fact their drives are not ubiquitous.

As in, even 100 years from now, there may be no drives to read it.

As long as we keep making disc drives, however, there will be drives that can read CDs, DVDs, and Blurays for at least 100 years due to the fact they make millions of these drives a year, and each new disc standard requires backwards compatibility with the previous ones.

Simply, I don’t trust something I require vendor lock-in to use and I also don’t trust something that isn’t everywhere already.

Thanks for your take.
Yes the longevity claim is is unproven, but they read in a standard DVD player and that’s intriguing.
I’ll be interested to see how they fair.

As far as I know, they do not read in a standard DVD player. At least, their website seems to say they don’t. Maybe I missed something.

Actually, the FAQ specifically states that the resultant writes are format compatible with standard DVD drives – so yes, in theory, they can be read by any other DVD drive – only writing requires the proprietary unit.

That said, the sucker appears to be slow by today’s standards, topping out at 4X.

I’m afraid, too, that I have to agree with you about the lack of suitability of current non-disc data storage formats, most notably FLASH. Being charge-based, unless rewritten on a regular basis, FLASH memory degrades fairly rapidly – while I’ve had memory cards from cameras that I could read without issue two, or even three years after the pictures were taken, this is more of an exception than the rule.

I do like the SD form factor, though,and regret that there aren’t more durable formats that use it – what I wouldn’t give for a plain old-school PROM with that kind of capacity – imagine a PROM based 16 or 32 GB SDHC card – now THAT would come a lot closer to approaching archival storage.

Thanks again for writing the article – I’ve adopted TY+R media almost exclusively since I first read it over two years ago. I do hope that you’ll update it to include Blu-ray soon, though, as I do indeed have volumes of data to back up that are measured in terabytes – but no enterprise level budget to do it, or to spend in a constant migration to newer media.

I don’t like the SD form factor because it is too specialized for the format and the small physical size ends up driving up costs.

CompactFlash seems to be a much superior format, especially since it speaks ATA (which, among other things, means I can plug it into a standard IDE plug using a mechanical socket adapter).

They do make extremely expensive industrial/military spec CF cards that can survive insane temperatures and use SLC flash (which means you can’t realistically write them to death), and also can store data unpowered for significantly long times.

This is not an archival solution, but still rather interesting to note.

I’ll update the article to cover Blu-ray when Taiyo Yuden starts producing them. Verbatim already does, but I’d still wait for TY.

Pat – in your answer to Kelly Easter, you said to AVOID burners whose max speed matches the max speed of the media. Why? Also, what is better then: 1) to have burner have greater or; 2) lessor max speed than media max speed?

What I was trying to say to Kelly was don’t use the max speed on a burner, basically. There usually is no problem in doing so, but sometimes people have problems.

There is no problems with DVDs in burning them slower; as in, I can buy a 16x burner and buy 16x discs and burn them at 12x or 8x fine, or I can buy a 20 or 24x burner and burn the 16x discs at 16x fine.

TY nor Verbatim lie about their discs’ maximum rated speed, so I trust using them at their maximum rated speed. Its the manufacturers I don’t quite trust, even though its basically only been rumors of problems.

Pat – Ok that’s clearer Thanks

Enjoyed your analysis.
Question: For the Taiyo Yuden, can you recommend a pen that will not degrade it? I need to label the discs with something, and I choose to not attach labels. Thanks.

Sanford makes a CD/DVD permanent marker now (although I’ve been using the original ultra-fine point for years). Verbatim also sells a disc marking pen.

Either will do fine. Try to avoid cheap brands, though, many are resold pens that have formulas that can possibly eat through a disc after a few months/years.

Thanks for all the great info.
I would like to use the TY DVDs to store high resolution photo collections that are presently on my Mac,
Nikon Picture Project.
I would like them to function both as long term archives, and something I can pop back into my computer to print from.
I print larger format , ie. 12″ x 18″ fine art photos on my Epson Stylus Photo 2200.

Also, I’m considering a Pacific Image PF7250 Pro 3 film scanner for transferring my older media to digital.

Any comments or suggestions ?

Theres only two really good film scanners out there. Canon used to make a model called the Canoscan FS4000US, and its considered the best film scanner ever produced.

However, its about eight years old and you can’t buy them new anymore and Canon no longer produces film scanners.

The only other option is Nikon’s Super Coolscan 5000ED. Both of these scanners are about $1000, so about three times more than what you were going to pay.

I’d also like to say, no matter what scanner you buy, make sure it works with Vuescan. Vuescan is (somewhat cheap) third party scanner software that works hundreds of scanners and is superior to the stuff that comes with the scanner. Even on cheap scanners, Vuescan makes them so much more useful.

I will corroborate Patrick McFarland’s comments in re both the scanner and the software. I have the Nikon Super Coolscan 5000ED and use Vuescan 8.5.08 under Mac OS X 10.6.2. A 35mm slide scans to 2670 X 1780 pixels, enough spatial resolution to see the grain. If your 35mm slides are worth the trouble to archive, you had best use a quality slide scanner.

I just had my super 8 movies restored and stored on my hard drive. I want to burn them on an archival DVD+R media. You said Taiyo Yuden is what you prefer. Is that what I want for archival storage? Does it come in gold? All I find is silver. Thanks.
Pullin Photography.

Yes, you want TY DVD+R media.

No, it does not come in gold, and the silver is actually a metal alloy that does not contain any silver at all and has been designed to be very stable and resist oxidizing.

See my reply to pat below this for further information.

You don’t mention Delkin gold archival DVDs, yet ,in your original article, you stated that gold as part of a DVD was a “good” archival material. How come?

Occasionally for clients, i’ll design and burn a label on top of those white-topped DVDs. I have some printable Verbatim (not gold)and some Delkin gold DVDs. Any thoughts about how well these might survive the years?

I just bought some “archival” sleeves that don’t fold over at the top – they don’t even close all the way on one side. Doesn’t seem to me that these are a good design for archival DVDs. Again – your thoughts? thanks.

I clearly stated some very expensive media uses gold, I didn’t state this is actually important. The sealing practices of the manufacturer to stop oxidizing agents from getting into the disc in the first place is most important.

If the disc begins to separate, this can damage the data layer, no matter if it is gold or not.

Verbatim often ships TY media, and when they aren’t, they ship their own. Both TY and Verbatim make top notch media. Your Verbatim media will last longer than the Delkin Gold DVDs.

For permanent storage of media, I use the same kind of black plastic CD and DVD cases are made of (usually high grade Polypropylene), the kind that doesn’t have an oily feel. The cases commercially sold CDs, DVDs, and Blurays come in usually use Polypropylene.

What DVD software burning program would you suggest. I took your advice and purchased the TY DVD+R and would like the option to “not finish” the disc and add more data later. I currently use Roxio and I have not seen that option anywhere.

What software is best suited for DVD+R and allows the user to add more data at a later time?

Thanks SO much!

I do not recommend using that feature. Operating systems generally can’t deal with sessions correctly and only show the first one written. Stand alone devices also generally can’t read discs that haven’t been finalized/closed.

DVDs are cheap, either burn another one when you change your data, or wait until you can fill one to burn it.

Patrick McFarland wrote: “Operating systems generally can’t deal with sessions correctly” I would agree in the case of Microsoft Windows. However, Mac OS X does correctly deal with multisession media. I have made multisession media that correctly mounted under Mac OS X, only to discover that Windows would only mount the most recently written session.

Ahh, OSX supports that now? Great. It didn’t last time I looked into that.

Um. Mac OS has supported mounting of multisession discs since Mac OS 9 and earlier. In Mac OS X, the Finder supports burning multisession discs, see the article:

“Mac OS X: How to burn a multi-session CD” (

Hmm, interesting. I asked several Mac owners when I was originally trying to find the answer, and all of them said OSX couldn’t do it. Go figure.

I was just wondering if this is the correct media referenced in this article:

It doesn’t say it is archival.

Yes, that is the right media. It doesn’t say archival because TY does not label their media that way.

Please explain if there is any difference in longterm reliability if you burned a 16x disc vs 8x. I am a photographer and want to insure I am offering my customer the most reliable media.

Not that I am aware of. There were some rumors of problems with early burners (ie, ones that could do 16x max), but I never found anything concrete. Just avoid burners who’s max speed matches the max speed of your media and you should be fine, and make sure your firmware is up to date.

Can you please explain your comment about avoid matching the maz speed of the media with the drive a bit more? I burn on my laptop which has a Matshita UJ-857G drive which has a DVD+R max speed of only 8x. I just ordered the TY 8x DVD+Rs. Should I have gotten the 16x or something else? Also, for best results should I burn at 8x, 4x, or 2.4x? Thanks!!!

I don’t recommend using laptop drives for burning.

That said, burn at 4x.

I am a avid film buff and have been recording films for several years on DVD+R media. Recently I went back to view some of these films and found that I was unable to play any of the ones I recorded on Fuji DVD +R but all the other DVDs recorded at the same or earlier times were still able to be viewed. Storage was also identical. Is there any reasonable explanation in order to correct for future recordings.

I’m not sure who Fuji uses for their discs, but I doubt it was TY or Verbatim. Most likely the discs sucked, and you lost your data because of that.

Thanks for your reply. Thought that it was the discs. Will change brands for my future storage use.

Why shouldn’t laptop burners be used? Also what are your thoughts on TDK discs?

Laptop burners, or any burner with a shallow tray, have a habit of wobbling and generally being of lower build quality.

TDK does not make discs, they only buy them and label them with the TDK art. They buy from anyone, sometimes even from TY or Verbatim, but its usually medium grade Indian or Chinese discs.

ImgBurn tells me my TDK are Riteks. Are Riteks any good?

Ritek is pretty bad. Ritek will eat your data in 5 years or less easily. I’m not sure how they’re even still in business.

Yes, I have 4 DVD:s from Traxdata and I believe it’s Ritek that manufacts them.
I have burned film on them and I have mearly looked at them since I burned them.
They have been stored in their cases since then but now, about 3-4 years later, the discs are unreadable!
I also have Verbatim discs that are the same or older in age and they still function well.

So beware of this and only buy high quality discs like Verbatim and TY if you will be sure to be able to read the discs after some years. That’s my simple advice after my own experience.

So I agree to Patrick McFarland to 100% on this.

I would like to add my experience here. I just finished looking at some Ritek and Memorex DVDs that I burned 3-5 years ago that have things like family photos and home videos that I want to keep for a long time, and many are unreadable. Fortunately, I have other backup copies on Verbatim and TDK disks of the same age that were okay. After reading thru this forum, I’ve purchased some Taiyu Yuden disks from and am now transferring the data from my old Verbatim and TDK disks to two different sets of T-Y media which will be kept in two different off-site locations for long-term archiving and storage.

I want to thank Patrick and all who have contributed here for their expertise, which has been invaluable in educating and helping me to arrive at a quality solution for my archiving needs.

What exactly is “bit rot?” In your responses to those wanting to keep files on an external hard drive, you mention bit rot as a possible threat to data stored on such devices.

Thanks for your thorough explaination of storage media.


Bit rot is where the data you write to a storage device is not the same data you read back after an extended period.

Bit rot can happen easily on any device that is “write many” (vs non-RW disc media being “write once”), so this includes hard drives and flash media. Disc media can also bit rot, but it is typically at a much lower rate when you buy quality media.

Put a TY DVD, a flash drive, and a hard drive in a vault for 20 years, the DVD will very likely have no unrecoverable errors, the flash drive may have gone completely blank, and the hard drive may or may not have unrecoverable errors.

However, this does not mean you cannot use hard drives for archiving data. Large always online storage arrays periodically check for bit rot and can survive hardware failure and some also have realtime offsite backup with another array somewhere else.

Using tapes is also another alternative if you don’t need always online access (such as for backups of medium to large data sets). Enterprise quality tapes, although being rewritable, resist change when being archived similar to that of quality disc media.

One more question:

Has anyone researched the “probability” time, when a CD or DVD is no longer usable? It seems a bit premature to “guarantee” an age, say 50 years, when DVDs have been on the market for less than 20 years. Have the DVDs you recommend been “stress tested,” to imitate any changes over a period of time?

Also, is there a clear warranty with any of the media you recommend?

They artificially stress test them using chambers that can increase temperature, increase air pressure, and bathe the discs in UV light.

They can do 50 years of damage in hours.

Also, all disc media is very similar. CDs have been on the commercial market for 30 years, and people still have the first music CDs from 1979 and they still play.

There is a warranty, but it wouldn’t help much. If the disc is defective, then you lose your data. They can’t get your data back.

Hi – Thank you fro writing your article about archival DVD media. I am currently researching which DVDs will best fit my needs to make the best archival quality copies of home video for myself and customers for a potential video-transfer business. I’m learning from scratch, and I appreciate your recommendation for DVD+R Taiyo Yuden discs. However, I am interested in getting a LightScribe burner to be able to label and apply images to discs…does Taiyo Yuden have a disc to fit this need or am I limited to LightScribe products? If LightScribe discs are my only option, can you offer any information regarding the archival quality of of the LightScribe discs (they are gold-colored, but are they really gold?), any dyes or chemicals associated with the etching process, and the coatings? Any advice regarding permanent labeling of discs with or without LightScribe that would be professional in appearance? I very much appreciate it! Thank you.

TY does not make Lightscribe discs that I know of, Verbatim does however. I’ve seen Lightscribe discs up front, and I don’t like the look of them.

To do it professionally, I’d probably buy a dedicated color thermal disc printer and use TY thermal printable discs; however, this is a mildly expensive option.

You can also use TY inkjet printable discs in a printer that has a disc tray or use a dedicated printer, but it isn’t as professional looking.

As for archival, Lightscribe discs are not gold, and I don’t remember them looking gold on either side. Lightscribe uses layer similar to the data layer, but it faces upwards and Lightscribe drives use the laser to write the picture onto the layer. It works the same as if you were writing data to it.

I am an amateur age 80. I have old VHS’s of my Family life that I would like to convert to an archival quality (50+ years) disc (Costco uses a gold color disc that they say is such??).

I have checked out your 2006 recommendation through, and find at
$35.99, Taiyo Yuden Shiny Silver Thermal 8X DVD+R Media 100 Pack in Cake Box

I notice that the disc is not gold color: perhaps that doesn’t matter?

Since you wrote your article in 2006, and updated another area in 2009, would you still
recommend I use the Taiyo Yuden shown above? Or do you recommend a DL (and if so,

I am most grateful for your assistance.

I do not recommend any Gold DVD products as they are not proven to last longer than Taiyo Yuden. I do not recommend anything Costco has either, I’m pretty sure they’re not reselling Taiyo Yuden or Verbatim.

TY currently sells a DL product, but not under their own brand.

If you need DL, use Verbatim’s.

Please, just one more question: since I don’t know the difference between a
DL product and Taiyo Yuden Shiny Silver Thermal 8X DVD+R Media. And I appreciate that
Costco and gold are not the way to go. Also, I now get that +R is better than -R, but where does DL come into all of this?

Will you kindly recommend what you consider the better choice for my purposes stated above: TY’s Shiny Silver Thermal 8X DVD+R Media OR some DL product? If you suggest
DL, where can such be bought and what should I look for?

Many thanks,

Well, it depends. In your case, you’d probably be producing 8GB worth of video to maximize quality of the transfer (although, since its on VHS, the quality will not be that great to begin with), which means you use DL, which is dual layer. Its simply how much the disc holds, as in, twice as much over a normal disc.

DL can be found in -R and +R form, but if you can’t find +R DL, its not a big issue. SuperMediaStore does sell Verbatim DL, which is what I use when I absolutely need a DL disc.

On normal storage (such as backing up music, or photos, or other things smaller than 4GB a piece), I use normal single layer +R discs, it is not worth the expense since DL are rather expensive.

In your case, I can easily see using DL.

I also want to transfer family VHS to DVDs and achieve superb quality. I have a Sony DVD Direct VRD-MC3 and hope that it will do the job. I am concerned with the number of single DVD+R discs that it will take to record so I’m interested to read recommendations about using DL dics. I am seeking the highest quality disc available.

At what level of recording less than HQ, which gives only 1 hour on a single or 2 hrs on DL, not show compromised and perceptible degradation of quality to the transfer from VHS to DVD?

What brand does TY sell its DL disc under? TY quality seems to be the best way to go so I would like to stick with TY.

Are there flaws, problems in using DL other than the added expense? I read that there is a pause? Is that still true?

Can the DVD+R be copied onto a Mac for ediitng? Then I would recopy onto a new disc.

Thank you.

TY sells DL under their brand, but it doesn’t look like SuperMediaStore carries it. Buy Verbatim brand instead, in a lot of cases Verbatim just resells TY although their own media is also top notch.

If you’re encoding video for DVD players, trying to put more than 2 hours of video on a DL DVD usually causes bad degradation, and on bad quality sources like VHS it really shows up.

There are no other problems with using DL other than the cost (which is about the cost of 4 or 5 single layer discs). The pause issue is with the player not the medium itself: early generation DVD players would pause when switching layers, which is visible on all commercially produced movie titles if your player suffers from it.

The pause itself is less than a second, and most people never noticed it anyhow. It only happens when switching between layers.

I do not recommend copying discs to edit them. Unlike simply duplicating a disc, this will incur a quality loss. Re-encoding anything from a source that uses “lossy” encoding, such as DVDs/Blurays, JPGs, and almost every compressed music format will result in quality loss.

I have been buying TY DVD-R from SMS (Linko) for years. Never had a problem with either the discs or the store.
I have probably burned 10,000 discs in the last 5 years and the only problem I ever had was my fault.
I highly recommend both Super Media Store and Taiyo Yuden.
I’m going to start using +R from now on.

Why would anyone buy CDs/DVDs when 500G HDs are going for $75?

Because hard drives are still susceptible to bit rot, and they are also susceptible to mechanical damage.

In addition, a stack of 10 single layer bluray discs can hold more.

The only reason to use hard drives if you have constant synchronizing off-site storage to prevent data loss on very large data sets, I don’t believe in hard drives for storage of personal data, too much can go wrong.

I want to archive my very Old music collection on this DVD+R or CD-R by TY. Does the DVD or CD recognize the data as music files v/s photos v/s any other data?
Thnks for a great article.

No, they don’t recognize anything. All they store is computer data, they don’t have different methods for different kinds.

There, however, is one exception: Audio CDs produced to have sound on normal everyday CD players. This not include discs filled with MP3s or other kinds of music files.

Very informative article –
I produce a lot of performance DVDs that parents want as archival discs – occasionally, for longer shows, I produce a 2-disc set, but I’d prefer to use a DL disc, if they’d last as long, archivally.
I’ve read that DL discs inherently have much lower reflectivity percentages for both layers than single layer discs, leading to lesser longevity – your thoughts, experiences?

The reflectivity issue is usually brought up by people who don’t understand how DVDs are read. Technically it can become an issue if the disc becomes scratched or dirty (as in, the effect will be a little worse), however just using DL DVDs in general won’t cause a problem.

Although I am greatly simplifying how DVD reading works, basically the laser is bounced off the disc surface and the read sensor only picks up on the light that is still focused. Dirt and scratches defocus the light.

The system “looks past” scratches and dirt using this focusing method, and to read multiple layers it has two different focus settings; neither focus setting can see the other layer, and the layers are designed not to interfere with reads for the other layer.

I think this worry originated from early generation commercially produced DL discs having lots of unrelated problems, which is why many early titles are either SL or double sided.

As far as I can tell, the lower reflectivity would cause issues if they had made triple or more layer DVDs.

1. Hopefully not to dumb a question – since sells TY DVD+R 8X media in shiny silver, white – inkjet printable, and silver – inkjet printable versions, is it preferable to get one of the inkjet versions in order to be able to use a “Sharpie” permanent marker to identify what’s on the disk or is the standard laquer coating of the “shiny” (cheaper) suitable for this type of marking.
2. Is there any way to credit you for using to purchase TY media as a way of showing my appreciation for all the information you have provided?
Thank you

I use thermal printable shiny silver discs with Sharpies. Just make sure you let the writing dry first otherwise you can smudge it/scrape it off accidentally. Inkjet surfaces tend to blot a little, so the writing comes out a lot thicker.

If you want to credit me, the links in my article automatically track sales.

Disclaimer: I link to SMS because they’re worth doing business with, and I do frequent business with them and they’re basically the only cheap vendor of TY discs in the US I trust.

I have been using a Plextor PX-716A for 4 years now, and have never had a coaster. I do a lot of research before buying anything important, and I can’t remember the differences between the various Plextor models…but I did buy the 716A for some reason :-)
My research at the time gave me the impression that Plextor is (was) the Rolls Royce of burners.
Can’t speak to the Samsungs – I haven’t researched them.
PS: Thanks for all the hard work and good advice that you are sharing with us all !!

Unfortunately, Plextor is no longer the Rolls Royce. They stopped producing their own burners during the PX-800 series and never came back to it. The 700 series was the last Plextors worth owning, I even owned one myself until it finally died after 5 years.

I replaced it with two Samsungs.

Thank you so much for spending the time to help all of us. I am interested in keeping photos safe. I am currently finishing up a 400 page biography on my father with lots of photos in it. I have been saving it (repeatedly – almost daily) on a Maxell DVD+RW. I recently started using a new one, thinking that the repeated saves might not be good over and over. I didnt know until a few days ago that there was any such thing as “archival” disks. I will purchase as you have recommended and resave off of my hard drive.
Question: What does the word “coasting” mean? Thanks again. elease

I prefer not to use CD-RW/DVD-RW media because it can bitrot rather easily due to it’s nature of being able to change.

CD-R should survive a few hundred and DVD-RW a few thousand writes before it starts having serious integrity problems under normal (temporary) usage.

Coaster, n., a bad burn, something to sit drinks on.

Great article. I’m currently using TDK ‘Gold’ DVD+R & DVD-R’s (made in Taiwan) burned on a Philips burner.

After a number of Coasters and after reading this I am rethinking. Thanks for a great article :-)

Elease, when you burn a CD/DVD and it fails what do you then do with the disk? I use it to put my coffee cup on, protecting the table from coffee rings. Hence the name ‘coaster’ :-) I personally also use them to scare the birds off my seedlings or make ‘arty’ (I use that word loosely!) montages on the wall. But tradition is that you use them under coffee cups as coasters.

Before switching to hard drive archival (raid 1+0 or 5+1), we must improve our archival system. So switching to the just discovered brand of TY (MAM too expensive).

The hardware has also been covered a bit here.

But what about the SOFTWARE??
People asked the question allready but didn’t get any response.
I need to know the best for both Mac and PC.
Mac -> I guess it’s Toast?
PC -> Roxio (also) or Nero??

Another thing that hasn’t been covered here is the burning speed.
CDs burnt at lower speed seem to be more stable than a CD burnt at 52X for example. It seems to be true everywere.. The slower you get the work done, the more you can do it perfectly.

Thanks for coming feedback on these questions!

Software isn’t really a big issue as long as it works properly.

Macs have burning software built into OSX, and PC users often use anything from Nero to CDBurnerXP. Linux users use cdrecord/wodim in combination with other programs.

The speed of the disc should be burnt at the speed it says on the box it came in. Burning it significantly slower can damage the disc, burning it faster can damage the disc.

There is obviously wiggle room here, burning at 8x on a 16x disc is totally fine.

Burning at super slow speeds is a myth and can actually cause complete burn fails on modern CD-R media burned at below 24x.

Most software selects an appropriate speed automatically and usually should be trusted when it falls within those rules.

I know OSX has Disk Utility to burn, but it can’t do everything neither.. I was asking for Mac because working on OS9 and I only know Toast. So software does not have any influence on the quality of the burning process?

Well, at the beginning of 42X burners and compatible media, I got a lot of errors burning at high speed (media used: TDK, Maxell and Verbatim). But if burning was ok, a couple of years later, we had a lot of redundancy check errors on those burnt at 42X.

So we did a test with identical data burnt at 16X and 42X. A couple of years later, no errors for the 16X ones, but maybe 10% of the 42X suffered from redundancy check errors.

So I don’t call this a myth but experienced reality. Maybe things have changed now, I don’t know. But it sure isn’t a myth, and I wasn’t the only one having the same issues (different media, different writer).

And about writing at speed that’s written on the box. Well, usually there is written “up to 52X” or “1X-16X compatible”. I’m not an expert in this but couldn’t it be like cars and bikes? Driving at a certain speed while your rpm needle just can’t go any further and just drive miles and miles like that isn’t very good neither. Is it wise to push things to their maximum capabilities?

No one uses classic MacOS anymore, so can’t really recommend anything. If Toast works for you, use it.

Software only needs to be able to check the disk after burning (which you should always do to make sure the burn was actually correct).

As for your 42x failures, it sounds like either the media was never rated for 42x, or your drive(s) weren’t rated for 42x. Drive manufacturers of cheap drives often do this to sell off old hardware, they simply change the firmware to make it think it can do it.

Drives that have unusually high jitter will produce high speed burns that eventually fail… but this is why I don’t use drives that are known to do that.

Now, some people do shortcut the entire issue and burn at one speed lower (ie, 4x/6x for 8x media, 8x/12x for 16x media, 36x for 48/52x media) in hopes of artificially reducing jitter, but I’ve never tested if this has a significant improvement.

But in your case, it really sounds like either problems with the drive or with the media, and its most likely the drive.

I have frequently recommended to people that they don’t use laptop or slim drives and they don’t use excessively loud ones normal drives. Both will often produce burns that eventually fail.

Thanks for the info.
(just, about the 42X related errors, I wasn’t the only one to notice that problem. But indeed, it was the beginning of 42X and the hardware is always chosen after comparing/reading reviews/etc.., so maybe the errors came from one of the things you described above.

So, nowadays, to have the best results, one should choose automatic burn speed to optimize results?

Yes. The drive actually makes the suggestion to the software, so sometimes you’ll have drives that can do what the media claims it can, but choose a lower speed. I wouldn’t try to override that… I would only override if it suggests a speed higher than what the media claims.

Now that I have obtained good quality DVD discs (TY), what type of jewel case should I use to keep the DVD slideshows that I create?
Ken Riesberg
Mesa, Arizona

SuperMediaStore sells jewel cases that are suitable for the task. Any black plastic works as long as its not oily (a sign of poorly constructed plastic). The kind you purchase with commercially sold music or DVDs work great.

The blue transparent plastic used for Blurays is also fine, but I don’t see it used in anything but Bluray cases.

What about DVD-RAM for archiving? I though it had superior error correction.

There is no way to make DVD-RAM permanent. Due to the nature of the media, it can be changed, or it can just bitrot. Although, in DVD-RAM’s favor, they survive more write cycles than a DVD-RW will, they just won’t retain data as long as DVD+R.

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